Below are some interesting articles relating to the science, history and political campaign at Cliefden. The various documents give a good overview of the issues at stake.


Caves Australia, When the Lesser of Two Evils is Too Evil, SCCA President Tim Gartrell, September 2015
Article in Australian Speleological Federation magazine Caves Australia on the impact of the Cranky Rock dam proposals and an update on the campaign to date.
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Save Cliefden Caves Association: Response to WaterNSW Belubula and Lachlan River Dam Investigation Report, August 2015
Official SCCA response to the dam proposals put forward by WaterNSW. This covers the impacts of various dam proposals on Cliefden, significance of Cliefden, and alternative options to dams in the Central West.
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WaterNSW: Belubula and Lachlan River Dam Investigation Executive Summary, February 2015
Executive summary of the full 235 page report on the methodology, results and recommendations of the investigation of additional storage in the Lachlan Valley.
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WaterNSW: Belubula and Lachlan River Dam Investigation, February 2015
Full 235 page report on the methodology, results and recommendations of the investigation of additional storage for water in the Lachlan Valley. This includes all potential dam sites on the Bulubula River.
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Page from the 2014 NSW State Budget, July 2014
This page shows the "$1.0 million towards scoping and feasibility studies, including environmental, geotechnical and preliminary design work, for the construction of a new dam on the Belubula River"
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John Cobb's speech to Parliament on the Needles Gap Dam, February 2014
He states "This has to happen." He also talks about benefits to the mining industry.
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John Cobb's speech to Parliament on the Needles Gap Dam, June 2014
He states "'This is needed; it is needed for the manufacturing, for the processing, for the urban development, for the mining, for the abattoirs and for the timber industry.' This dam is not about more irrigation, but it does give greater security to the irrigation that exists".
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Water Infrastructure Ministerial Working Group on Dams, October 2014
This puts forward the suggestion that dams in the Central West on the Belubula could be fastracked through funding by private enterprise.
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Australian Heritage Database - Cliefden Caves and Needles Gap Areas
"The area has the distinction of being the site of the first discovery of limestone in mainland Australia (Oxley 1820) and was the first fossiliferous Ordovician limestone found in New South Wales (Stevens1950). Its present significance rests on the abundant well preserved fossils occurring there, particularly at Fossil Hill and Trilobite Hill."
Click HERE for PDF

Geology and Fossils

ProGeo News, Cliefden Caves, Australia, At Risk of being Flooded by Construction of Dam, December 2014
European Association for Conservation of Geological Heritage article in ProGEO magazine about global significance of Cliefden's caves and fossils.
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Cliefden Scientific Reference List
This list, which is still incomplete, is being compiled by Dr Armstrong Osborne of Sydney University.
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1962 Report on Belubula River dam sites
This scientific paper from the NSW Department of Mines outlines the geology of the Needles proposed dam storage area.
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1941 Report on Belubula River dam sites
This is a geological survey report on a number of possible dam sites on the Belubula River. Inrelation to the Needles Gap site it states that . . . "this site is not suitable for the construction of a major dam. . ."
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Geoheritage values of Fossil Hill at Cliefden
This is a two page report from the Geological Society of NSW magazine TAG.
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Ordovician coral genus "Tetradium Dana" from Cliefden NSW (B.D. Webby and V. Semeniuk)
This scientific paper from the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW, 1971, describes 10 species of Tetradium Dana from the Cliefden fossil deposits.
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Ordovician Stratigraphy at Cliefden Caves (by N. C. Stevens)
This scientific paper from the Linnean Society of NSW (1952) outlines the research on fossils at Cliefden Caves to that time.
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Upper Ordovician conodonts from the Cliefden Caves area (J.A. Trotter and B.D. Webby)
This scientific paper from the Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics (1994) describes the important work done in researching new taxa of conodont faunas at Cliefden Caves.
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Guide to NSW Karst and Caves
This report by the National Parks and Wildlife Service states on page 38 that "In addition to these values, lesser known karst environments can also contain extensive and well-developed karst features, like those at Cliefden and Walli. In some cases these features are of regional and state significance, highlighting the importance of all karst environments, whether publicly or privately managed." The report also states on page 29 that "Thermal springs ... are rare in NSW and, besides Wee Jasper, occur only at Cliefden and Yarrangobilly caves.
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Cliefden Caves Vegetation Rehabilitation & Conservation Project 1998-99
The project re-erected sections of an old fence line to supplement existing fences and so fully enclose The Island, a large limestone hill of approximately 15 hectares containing karst features and important vegetation remnants. Major fencing was completed in late 1998 to early 1999. Some revegetation of the hill with native tree and shrub species also occurred.
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Oliver Trickett's 1909 report on the Cliefden Caves
Mr. O. Trickett, at the request of the Intelligence Department, furnished the report in 1909 on the Cliefden Caves in connection with their protection and the proposed resumption of the Cliefden Estate. This resumption did not go ahead due to complexities with the title of the land, however the significance of the caves and surrounding geology is well recognised in his report.
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Explorer John Oxley's description during his discovery of limestone in 1873
This is an extract from John Oxley's first expedition in his book entitled "Two Expeditions into the Interior of New South Wales".
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Description of Cliefden Caves Limestone, Limestone Deposits of New South Wales 1919
These are the relevant pages from 1919 government publication.
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C.S. Wilkinson 1892 description of some nerby caves and the Cliefden warm spring
Whilst the bulk of this report is on some other nearby caves, the government geologist does mention the hot spring.
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